SOCIAL STUDIES. Summaries in English.



GLOBES AND MAPSGlobo-Terraqueo-Celeste.jpg

Our planet (The Earth) is not a perfect sphere. It is a bit flat at the Poles.
The Earth can be represented on globes and on maps. Globes are realistic, but maps are easier to use and transport.

There are different types of maps
  • Physical Maps They represent landforms, rivers...
  • Political Maps. They represent countries, borders, states, ...
  • Theme Maps They give us information about different aspects such as climate, population, agriculture, ...


We can easily locate points with the aid of a compass.
A compass always points north. There are four points on the Compass Rose: north, south, east and west.


To locate points on a map, man has developed an imaginary net that covers the whole planet.

  • Meridians are imaginary lines that go from the North Pole to the South Pole.
The Prime Meridian or Greenwich Meridian divides our planet into 2 halves: Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere.

  • Parallels are imaginary circles that run from the Equator to the Poles. The Equator is colloquially known as The Line. The equator divides our Planet into two halves: Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere.

Meridians always have the same size, whereas Parallels become shorter as they get closer to the Poles.

LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE help us find the exact position of a point. Latitude is the distance of a point from the equator and longitude indicates the distance of a point from Greenwich Meridian.

G.P.S. Global Positioning System.
It is a machine that gives us the exact position of latitude and longitude. Its technology is satellite-based so it is very accurate and easy to transport.

Maps represent the world on a smaller scale. They include a scale that shows the correlation between the distance on a map and the actual distance in the world.

If you want to learn more:
Find these cities
Geography Games
The Compass Rose
Latitude Longitude Game