SOCIAL STUDIES. Summaries in English.

UNIT 5
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CLIMATES ON EARTH

The Earth can be divided into five climatic zones according to temperatures and rainfall.
A. TROPICAL (Low Latitude Climates).
The area between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
Temperatures are high all year round. The Sun's rays hit directly on this area of the planet. There are no differences from one season to another.
Tropical Climates offer three different landscapes: rainforest, savannah and desert.


B. TEMPERATE (Mid Latitude Climates)
Two areas between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn and the Poles.
Here the Sun's rays hit more or less directly depending on the season of the year (spring, summer, fall and winter).
We find three different types of landscapes in the temperate areas: Mediterranean, Oceanic and Continental.


C. POLAR ZONES (High Latitude Climates)
These are the coldest areas of the planet with extremely low temperatures throughout the year.

A.1. TROPICAL .RAINFOREST.


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The average temperature is very high (27ºC). Precipitation is heavy all year long. Rivers are regular with intense flow because of the constant rainfall.
Mahogany and ebony trees grow in the Rainforest.


A.2.TROPICAL .SAVANNAH.savana.jpg
Temperatures are always high. After a dry season there is heavy rainfall. This causes the color of the landscape to change from green to yellowish depending on the season of the year.


A.3.DESERTS.

It almost never rains in this area. There are hot and cold deserts.desert1_OPT.jpg
Conditions for survival are difficult in the desert; only a few number of species can live there. An oasis with palm trees may grow in some humid zones of the desert.


B.1. TEMPERATE .MEDITERRANEAN.
It is a pleasant climate; neither too cold nor too hot. Summers are dry and winters are humid. The Mediterranean Coast is a good example of this climate.
Evergreen trees such as cork, oak and cedar grow at these latitudes.


B.2. TEMPERATE .OCEANIC.
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This is the type of climate we find in the British Isles. The temperatures are mild in the winter and the summer. High humidity levels are caused by frequent storms with rain and fog.
Deciduous forests grow at these latitudes.


B.3. TEMPERATE. CONTINENTAL.

We find this climate only in the northern hemisphere. There is a large contrast between summer and winter temperatures.
Rainfall appears mainly in summer and winters are dry. Rivers, which are frozen in winter, melt in spring and cause severe flooding. Examples of this climate are found in northern countries in Europe.

3. 1 . POLAR CLIMATE.

Also called “Tundra”. It is the climate of the Poles. There are extremely cold temperatures in winter and quite cool temperatures in summer.
Blizzards and storms are frequent.
Snow and ice cover the landscape and cause the typical white color of these areas.
It is frozen most of the year so very few plants, such as bushes and moss, can grow.


3.2..ICECAP.
This is the climate of the highest summits and mountain ranges of the planet.
Temperatures are always low, especially in winter. Rainfall is constant throughout the year. Temperature descends as elevation increases. Vegetation varies according to altitude.




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If you want to learn more
Climate web